الثلاثاء، 22 نوفمبر، 2016

SQL - Expressions في برنامج foxpro

SQL - Expressions




An expression is a combination of one or more values, operators, and SQL functions that evaluate to a value.
SQL EXPRESSIONs are like formulas and they are written in query language. You can also use them to query the database for specific set of data.

Syntax:

Consider the basic syntax of the SELECT statement as follows:
SELECT column1, column2, columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE [CONDITION|EXPRESSION];
There are different types of SQL expressions, which are mentioned below:

SQL - Boolean Expressions:

SQL Boolean Expressions fetch the data on the basis of matching single value. Following is the syntax:
SELECT column1, column2, columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE SINGLE VALUE MATCHING EXPRESSION;
Consider the CUSTOMERS table having the following records:
SQL> SELECT * FROM CUSTOMERS;
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| ID | NAME | AGE | ADDRESS | SALARY |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| 1 | Ramesh | 32 | Ahmedabad | 2000.00 |
| 2 | Khilan | 25 | Delhi | 1500.00 |
| 3 | kaushik | 23 | Kota | 2000.00 |
| 4 | Chaitali | 25 | Mumbai | 6500.00 |
| 5 | Hardik | 27 | Bhopal | 8500.00 |
| 6 | Komal | 22 | MP | 4500.00 |
| 7 | Muffy | 24 | Indore | 10000.00 |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Here is simple example showing usage of SQL Boolean Expressions:
SQL> SELECT * FROM CUSTOMERS WHERE SALARY = 10000;
+----+-------+-----+---------+----------+
| ID | NAME | AGE | ADDRESS | SALARY |
+----+-------+-----+---------+----------+
| 7 | Muffy | 24 | Indore | 10000.00 |
+----+-------+-----+---------+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

SQL - Numeric Expression:

This expression is used to perform any mathematical operation in any query. Following is the syntax:
SELECT numerical_expression as OPERATION_NAME
[FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION] ;
Here numerical_expression is used for mathematical expression or any formula. Following is a simple examples showing usage of SQL Numeric Expressions:
SQL> SELECT (15 + 6) AS ADDITION
+----------+
| ADDITION |
+----------+
| 21 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
There are several built-in functions like avg(), sum(), count(), etc., to perform what is known as aggregate data calculations against a table or a specific table column.
SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) AS "RECORDS" FROM CUSTOMERS;
+---------+
| RECORDS |
+---------+
| 7 |
+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

SQL - Date Expressions:

Date Expressions return current system date and time values:
SQL> SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP;
+---------------------+
| Current_Timestamp |
+---------------------+
| 2009-11-12 06:40:23 |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Another date expression is as follows:
SQL> SELECT GETDATE();;
+-------------------------+
| GETDATE |
+-------------------------+
| 2009-10-22 12:07:18.140 |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)